Feed hygiene is usually managed by using technologies
including heat treatments or/and the use of feed additives containing organic
acids and formaldehyde.
Heat treatment is very effective tool for killing
bacteria but there are factors such as the initial contamination of the mash
feed and the amount of time in the conditioner which will affect the efficiency
of the heat treatment. Weaknesses of heat treatment includes certain types of
Salmonella being resistant (S.senftemberg, S.thomson) and effects on moisture
and cell damaging.
Feed Additives - Organic Acid
Acids are also frequently used to attain feed hygiene. Though it has the toxic
effect to microorganisms in the gut, it"s disadvantages includes being mostly
only effective in low to medium level of contamination and could potentially
require higher inclusion for high level of contamination.
Feed Additive – Formaldehyde
chemical disinfectant such as formaldehyde has a well-known efficiency.
Formaldehyde’s disruption of pathogen cell membranes and denaturation of
pathogen proteins makes it particularly effective against vegetative
gram-positive, gram-negative bacteria and mycoplasma. It has a mode of action
complementary to organic acids, such as propionic acid, which disrupts hydrogen
pumps and causes an increase in pH, impairing normal cellular processes.
Comparison studies have shown that a combination of formaldehyde and propionic
acid is stronger than either component alone because it acts at two different
UNDERSTANDING THE IMPORTANCE OF FEED HYGIENE